Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta is the capital of the West Bengal region in India. Kolkata in terms of the area occupied, is the second largest city in India. The city is predominantly located on the Ganges Delta and lies at an elevation of 1.5 meters to 9 meters. The city lies on the bank of the river, River Hooghly with much fertile and alluvial soil sprawled across the city.
Owing to its location on the delta and nearness to the river, the city enjoys a tropical climate characterized by both wet and dry seasons. The summers are hot and humid and exceed the temperature of 40 degree Celsius. Winters are short, lasting for just two months, December through January. The lowest temperature experienced in this city is 5 degree Celsius. Summers, especially during its onset are intervened by some climatic interventions resulting into thunderstorms and rainfalls. Apart from summers, the city faces a large monsoon season, from June through September resulting into extensive rainfalls and thunderstorms.
The city has an elaborate system of public transportation buses, railways, metros and trams to meet the communication needs of people. The metros are run by Indian Railways and are a perfect example of successful underground commuting system.
Victoria Memorial, built in the 19th century is a great memorial to Queen Victoria. Inaugurated by the Prince of Wales, the monument welcomes its visitors with brisk white marble walls and beautiful gardens. The Birla Planetarium is a gigantic astronomical reserve offering the ease to access the solar system and the major parts of universe.