Established in 1961 to help stem the flow of refugees from East Germany to West Germany, the Berlin Wall has become synonymous with the city. When it was torn down in 1989, the graffiti-covered wall extended for 155 kilometers and rose four meters high, with almost 300 observation towers and more than 50 bunkers.

Today just a small stretch of the wall has been preserved as part of the Berlin Wall Memorial, which was established by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal State of Berlin in 1998. It not only stands as a reminder of the division of Berlin during this tumultuous period but also those who lost their lives trying to cross the border. The memorial site includes the Berlin Wall Documentation Centre, the Window of Remembrance and the Marienfelde Refugee Center Museum, which details the 1.5 million people who passed through the city as refugees.