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Rome History
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Rome History

The Legend

For a long time time it has been believed that Rome was founded
around 753 BC by Remus and Romulus, twin sons of Mars (God of War) and Princess
Rhea Silvia. After being abandoned near the Tiber river and raised by a wolf,
the twin brothers engaged in a battle for the control of their new founded city.
Romulus killed Remus then named and governed the city of "Rome".

Ok, so now here are some verified facts about Rome, Italy:

The History

Etruscan kings ruled Rome before 510 BC until it transformed into a republic. Near the second century BC, the Romans controlled most part of the Italian peninsula, especially the central and southern parts. The strategic positioning of the Romans to conquer the Mediterranean regions had a strong momentum after defeating the rival city of Carthage off the African shore. From then, after the Egyptians and the Greeks, a new civilisation super power was in fast expansion. War and political campaigns grew the Roman domination over the whole Mediterranean world into what was known as the Roman Empire. One of the most well-known Roman leader, Julius Caesar, also expanded the hold of the empire over the north-western regions of Europe through war campaigns. However, as Rome was gaining power abroad, internal struggles and un-satisfied citizens lead to civil wars and uproars culminating when Julius Caesar was backstabbed by his son Brutus in year 44 BC. It was the end of the Republic.

Then came series of ego-maniac emperors who all wanted to leave their heritage on the city.

Roman Timeline

753 BC - Legendary Foundation of Rome by Romulus.

715 - 616 BC - Reign of the sabin kings.

616 - 509 BC - Reign of the Etruscan kings. Construction of the first Roman forum.

509 BC - Rome is liberated from the Etruscan tyranny. Here begins the introduction of the Republic.

282-272 BC - War encounters with Pyrrhus, Epirus King. Victorious
Rome extends its domination over Southern Italy.

264-146 BC - Punic Wars. The Romans take over and destroy Carthage.

133-121 BC - "Les Gracques": the Gracchus brothers , two powerful orators of the plebs, promulgate an agrarian law (lex sempronia) for the sharing of public land to the poor citizens community. The Senate are able to sponsor their assassination.

49-30 BC - Civil wars.

44 BC - Assassination of Julius Caesar on March 15.

27 BC - 68 AD - Reign of Augustus and the julius-claudius emperors (Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero).

7-80 - Construction of the Coliseum

69-96 - Flavienne dynasty (Vespasien, Titus, Domitien).

96-192 - Antonius dynasty (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius, Marc-Aurelius.).

193-235 - Severe dynasty (Severe Septime, Caracalla.).

313 - Emperor Constantin recognizes worship freedom and converts to Christianity. The catacombs starts to have a decline in use.

395 - With the death of Theodosus, the Empire is shared between its two sons. There can now be distinguished to empires, a Western Empire (Ravenne capital) and a Byzantine Empire (Constantinople capital).

410 - Ransack of Rome by the Alaric hordes, king of the Visigoths.

476 - Odoacre, Herules king, lands Romulus Augustule, thus signing the end of the Western Empire. Rome becomes under Byzance domination.

752 - Facing the Lombards threat, the pope Stephen II partners with franc king P├ępin le Bref.

800 - Victorious over the Lombards, Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Occident by the sovereign pontiff.

962 - The king Saxony Otton 1st founds the Saint Germanic Roman Empire. The emperor has a right overseeing ecclesiastical nominations.

XI -XII century - Conflicts between the Saint Germanic Roman Empire and the papacy. The Roman aristocracy clashes as rival clans.

1130-1155 - Arnaud de Brescia tries to found a Roman Republic against the temporal power of the Holy See, but lost his fight.

1309-1377 - Papacy settles in Avignon.

1347 - A powerful orator with the favour of a popular rising, Cola di Rienzo founds a Roman Republic. He dies assassinated.

1378-1417 - Great schism of Occident: three popes coexist in Rome, Avignon and Pisa.

1520 - Martin Luther lays down the foundations of the Protestant Reform.

1527 - Ransack of Rome by Charles Quint mercenaries.

1545-1563 - Trente Council and installation of the Counter-Reformation by the catholic church.

1723 - 1726 - Construction of the Spanish Steps.

1732 - 1762 - Construction of the Trevi Fountain.

1798 - The French troops occupy Rome. Proclamation of the Roman Republic.

1809 - The Papal States are attached to the French Empire.

- Rome becomes capital of the Italy kingdom.

1922 - Fascists takes hold of Rome.

1929 - Lateran Agreements.

1944 - Liberation of Rome.

1946 - A referendum leads to the Italian Republic.

1957 - The Treaty of Rome institutes the Common Market.

1962-1965 - The Vatican II Council.

Years 70-80 - Political terrorism period in Italy.

1978 - Polish cardinal Carol Wojtyla is risen to Saint Peter's throne as Pope Jean Paul II.

1992 - Launching of the mani pulite operation ("clean hands") against the politico-financial corruption.

1994 - Beginning of the Republic.

2000- Rome celebrates the year 2000 Jubilee.

2001- After his victory, to the legislative elections, of the right center coalition that he directed, Silvio Berlusconi, the richest man of Italy, returns to the
head of the government.

2002 - Adoption of an immigration law which hardens the entry and staying conditions of the immigrants and facilitates the expulsion of the clandestine ones.

2005 - Pope John Paul II dies. 4 million people will get into Rome for his final days and funerals.