Venice, Italy, is known to be one of the most magical place on earth. Sitting in the Adriatic Sea like a vision (especially if one first approaches it from the mainland by boat), the city is an emblematic symbol of art, culture, and evokes the power of imagination. It simply seems to float over the sea by nature.

Of course, the city wasn't built by magic. Venice is a testament to the ingenuity of the human spirit and invention. Stone buildings of great beauty sit on the water; boats of varying sizes traverse the canals the way cars, trucks, and buses crowd the streets of more conventional cities; crowds throng the bridges and narrow pedestrian streets.

If one wants to understand the history of Venice, the best starting point is to understand the canals themselves, and how their construction and history reflects and explains the city itself.

A Venice canal perspective Picture

The Canals

Venice is almost defined by its canals, with more than 150 waterways meandering through the city and traversed by over 400 bridges. The Grand Canal (“Canalasso”) stretches around 2 miles (3 kilometers) through the city in a giant “S” curve from the Santa Lucia train station to the Piazza San Marco and the stunning church of Santa Maria de Salute, at which point it is over 350 feet wide.. It serves as a major artery for commuter traffic and is lined with more than 170 buildings, including many of Venice’s most impressive architectural landmarks dating from the 13th to 18th centuries. The Grand Canal is spanned by four bridges, including the photogenic Rialto Bridge, the Ponte degli Scalzi, the Ponte dell'Accademia and the Ponte della Costituzione.

Smaller canals crisscross the city and most originated as naturally occurring inlets and channels between the marshy islands of the Laguna Venezia. Buildings were initially constructed on pilings set into the layers of sand and clay and over time were fortified with stone and brick to create more permanent dwellings. The canals were gradually deepened and widened, being lined with stone to allow for commercial traffic as the city’s population grew, and the result is the maze of canals that make up the city today. 

Small Canal in Venice Italy

Of course, the most well known watercrafts in Venice are the gondolas – the narrow, curiously shaped black boats that are poled through the shallow canals by gondoliers in striped shirts and wide brimmed hats. The locals, who once used the gondolas as a primary mode of transportation, leave them to the tourists these days, and anyone passing the canals becomes used to the cries of the gondoliers trying to attract business.

It’s not only charming gondolas that ply the waters of the Venetian canals but also freight barges, garbage boats and ambulances, as well as vaporetto water taxis for local commuters getting from A to B. Exploring Venice along its canals offers a unique perspective on the city and is a highlight of any visit. Whether you opt to be slowly propelled by a gondolier at night or travel with locals in a vaporetto by day, the Venetian canals remain one of Italy’s most captivating features. 

Earlier Constructions of the Canals in Venice

When Venice was originally settled by villagers from the mainland in the 5th century, the canals were essentially the naturally occurring inlets and channels between the marshy islands of the Lagoon of Venice (Laguna Venezia). Buildings were constructed on pilings made from closely spaced tree trunks set into the layers of sand and clay that made up the islands. As the buildings became more and more elaborately built of stone and brick, more and larger trees had to be brought from father and farther away – many of the pilings still in use today came from Slovenia hundreds of years ago. The canals had to be deepened and widened and lined with stone in order to accommodate the construction traffic and the commercial traffic that came with the exploding population; more canals were created as fill was added into the lagoon to create more islands for building, leading to the present maze that makes up the city.

View from Gondolas Picture

Challenges Today

Since the canals are the main circulatory routes of the city, a great deal of maintenance is constantly being done on them. Canals are shallow – no more than 10-15 ft deep in many places – and are defined by spaces between the buildings that crowd their banks. They must be dredged regularly to remove the silt and sand that is deposited in the canals by the frequent high tides that can flood the city (also known as "acqua alta, or "high water").

There are also more than ever issues regarding sustainable travel in Venice. Although it may be very hard to NOT want to visit Venice, it is most likely a better idea to plan going to other destinations, especially during high season months from April to October. Otherwise you might end up adding to the already overcrowdedness of tourists.

The water that fills the canals is, to say the least, not clean. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the combination of industrial waste from the mainland and human waste has caused the canals to be, in a word, filthy – the natural rhythms of the ocean can no longer handle the overflow, and microbes and pollution fill the water and the sediment at the bottom. Many plans have been created over the years to try and remedy the situation, but at the present time, the memories of children swimming in the canals remain only memories. In recent years, the level of industrial pollution has eased, but the situation still remains difficult.

Human activity and the rerouting of rivers and streams into the lagoon have in recent years caused the city to begin sinking. The dredging of canals to maintain a useful depth is constant; many residents who could once step from their homes into a private boat to traverse the city have moved into the upper floors of their houses to avoid the frequent flooding of the canals. In 2011, a system of inflatable gates was put into place to control the water that floods the city.

Despite the continued threat to the health of Venice's canals, they remain one of the most distinctive and compelling architectural features in the world. The canals of Venice are one of Europe's top tourist attractions. A ride through the canals, whether by gondola or in a powered boat, exposes the magic of this unique city in a way that's unequalled by any other method. Travel the Canalasso at night, or explore the maze of smaller waterways during the day; the traveler is sure to come away with memories never to be erased.